Risk and protective factors

Recommended reading on family and whānau violence


Risk and protective factors

(What 'causes' family violence?)

Public health approaches seeks to identify "risk and protective factors" for violence rather than causes. Risk factors increase a person's chance of experiencing or perpetrating abuse and protective factors reduce it. Understanding these contributors to violence and the way they interact is critical to informing effective prevention and intervention efforts. Information on issues that contribute to violence is also available in many of the items under Conceptual models. This section lists research specifically seeking to identify risk and protective factors.

Child abuse and neglect

Aotearoa New Zealand

Connolly, M., & Doolan, M. (2007)
Lives cut short: Child death by maltreatment
Wellington: Dunmore Publishing.


Child abuse and neglect - CDC (webpage)
Lists individual, family and community risk and protective factors

Lamont, A., & Price-Robertson, R. (2013)
Risk and protective factors for child abuse and neglect
Child Families Communities Australia paper
Melbourne, Vic: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Australian Institute of Family Studies (2014)
Who abuses children: Fact sheet
CFCA Resource sheet
Melbourne, Vic: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Intimate partner violence

Aotearoa New Zealand

Fanslow, J. L., Robinson, E. M., Crengle, S., & Perese, L. (2010)
Juxtaposing beliefs and reality: Prevalence rates of intimate partner violence and attitudes to violence and gender roles by New Zealand women
Violence Against Women, 16, 812‐831.


Abramsky, T., Watts, C. H., Garcia-Moreno, C., Devries, K., Kiss, L., Ellsberg, M., Jansen, H., & Heise, L. (2011)
What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence?: Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence
BMC Public Health, 11, 109.

Jewkes, R. (2002)
Intimate partner violence: Causes and prevention
The Lancet, 359(9315), 1423-1429.

World Health Organization/London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (2010)
Risk and protective factors for intimate partner and sexual violence (pp.18-33).
In: Preventing intimate partner and sexual violence against women: Taking action and generating evidence. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Elder abuse

Peri, K., Fanslow, J. L., Hand, J., Parsons, J., & Auckland Uniservices Ltd (2008)
Elder Abuse and Neglect: An exploration of risk and protective factors
Wellington: The Families Commission.


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