Impacts of violence

Recommended reading on family and whānau violence


Impacts of violence


Information on the impacts of violence is summarised in many reports in this reading list. This section highlights additional key sources of information, in particular on health impacts. Further information is available under Victim/survivor voices.

Adverse childhood experiences

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012)
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study
Atlanta, GA: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Population Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The groundbreaking Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study is one of the world’s largest studies on childhood abuse and neglect and later life health and wellbeing. It found that certain adverse childhood experiences lead to adult onset of chronic disease, such as cancer and heart disease, as well as mental illness, violence and being a victim of violence.

Adverse Childhood Experiences
ACEs too high! (website)
This website reports on new research about adverse childhood experiences and covers how people, organisations, agencies and communities are implementing practices based on the research.

Publications from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (a longitudinal study which has followed the lives of 1037 children born in Dunedin in 1972-73) and Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) (a longitudinal study which has followed the lives of 1265 children born in Christchurch in 1977).

Economic costs

Kahui, S., & Snively, S. (2014)
Measuring the economic costs of child abuse and intimate partner violence to New Zealand
Wellington: MoreMedia Enterprises and The Glenn Inquiry.

Kahui, S., Ku, B. & Snively, S. (2014)
Productivity gains from workplace protection of victims of domestic violence
Wellington: MoreMedia Enterprises.

Health impacts

Fanslow, J. L., & Robinson, E. (2004)
Violence against women in New Zealand: Prevalence and health consequences
The New Zealand Medical Journal, 117(1206).

ANROWS (2016)
A preventable burden: Measuring and addressing the prevalence and health impacts of intimate partner violence in Australian women. Key findings and future directions
Sydney, NSW: ANROWS.
Finds that intimate partner violence contributes an estimated 5.1% to the disease burden in Australian women aged 18-44 years, which is higher than any other risk factor in the study, including tobacco use, high cholesterol or use of illicit drugs.


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